The p-value ritual

The p-value and its implicit symbolism

The Aristotelian conditional syllogistic logic behind the Fisherian p-value is widely misunderstood which leads to fallacious logical inferences. The p-value resembles a Kantian paralogism, i.e., it appears objective and logically valid even though it is not. The p-value is an irrational social ritual (cf. Gigerenzer, 2004). Social conformity, obedience to authority, groupthink, and other aspects of Social Identity Theory (SIT) play an important role in this context.

Given the well-documented paralogisms associated with classical Fisherian null hypothesis significance testing (cf. Cohen, 1994) I advocate alternative inferential research methods. For the statistical analyses of the experimental data I collected during my PhD I utilised Bayesian bootstrapping, Bayes Factor analysis, and Bayesian parameter estimation via Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations (in addition to classical NHST).

“Few researchers are aware that their own heroes rejected what they practice routinely. Awareness of the origins of the ritual and of its rejection could cause a virulent cognitive dissonance, in addition to dissonance with editors, reviewers, and dear colleagues. Suppression of conflicts and contradicting information is in the very nature of this social ritual.”
(Gerd Gigerenzer, 2004, p. 592; Director Emeritus of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, inter alia)

Statistical Research Methods workshop at the University of Plymouth in 2014:
The pitfalls of hypothesis testing


Related Posts
previous arrownext arrow

In inferential statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter. The interval has an associated confidence level that, loosely speaking, quantifies the level of confidence that the parameter lies in the interval. More strictly speaking, the confidence level represents the frequency (i.e. the proportion) of possible confidence intervals that contain the true value of the unknown population parameter. In other words, if confidence intervals are constructed using a given confidence level from an infinite number of independent sample statistics, the proportion of those intervals that contain the true value of the parameter will be equal to the confidence (...)

An interesting and innovative proposal is to use blockchain technologies (usually associated with digital crypto currencies like, for instance, Bitcoin or Ethereum) to counteract the replication crisis, to validate empirical findings, and to improve and optimize the scientific procedure on a large scale (Bartling & Fecher, 2016). The authors suggest that “Blockchain could strengthen science's verification process, helping to make more research results reproducible, true, and useful” (Bartling & Fecher, 2016, p. 1). Even though this proposal might seem unrealistic or overstated to those unfamiliar with blockchain technologies, we think that this is indeed an excellent innovative and creative proposal because blockchain technologies can be used in all situations which require (...)

In order to make software easily citable, a "citation file format" *.CITATION.cff should be included in the root of the repository.
cff-version: 1.0.3
message: If you use this software, please cite it as below.
authors:
- family-names: Germann
given-names: Christopher, Benjamin
orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1573-4651
title: Psychology Meta Search Tool
version: 1.0.2
URL: https://christopher-germann.de/psychology-meta-search-tool-v1-02/
date-released: 2012-07-16

In R the citation of a given package can be extracted as follows (using BibTeX for LaTex).

citation('ggplot2')

#To cite ggplot2 in publications, please use:
#H. Wickham. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer New York, 2009.
#A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is

@Book{,
author (...)

/*!
* Base CSS for pdf2htmlEX
* Copyright 2012,2013 Lu Wang
* https://github.com/coolwanglu/pdf2htmlEX/blob/master/share/LICENSE
*/#sidebar{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;width:250px;padding:0;margin:0;overflow:auto}#page-container{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;margin:0;padding:0;border:0}@media screen{#sidebar.opened+#page-container{left:250px}#page-container{bottom:0;right:0;overflow:auto}.loading-indicator{display:none}.loading-indicator.active{display:block;position:absolute;width:64px;height:64px;top:50%;left:50%;margin-top:-32px;margin-left:-32px}.loading-indicator img{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0}}@media print{@page{margin:0}html{margin:0}body{margin:0;-webkit-print-color-adjust:exact}#sidebar{display:none}#page-container{width:auto;height:auto;overflow:visible;background-color:transparent}.d{display:none}}.pf{position:relative;background-color:white;overflow:hidden;margin:0;border:0}.pc{position:absolute;border:0;padding:0;margin:0;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;overflow:hidden;display:block;transform-origin:0 (...)

previous arrow
next arrow
Shadow
Slider

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

code