The p-value ritual

The p-value and its implicit symbolism

The Aristotelian conditional syllogistic logic behind the Fisherian p-value is widely misunderstood which leads to fallacious logical inferences. The p-value resembles a Kantian paralogism, i.e., it appears objective and logically valid even though it is not. The p-value is an irrational social ritual (cf. Gigerenzer, 2004). Social conformity, obedience to authority, groupthink, and other aspects of Social Identity Theory (SIT) play an important role in this context.

Given the well-documented paralogisms associated with classical Fisherian null hypothesis significance testing (cf. Cohen, 1994) I advocate alternative inferential research methods. For the statistical analyses of the experimental data I collected during my PhD I utilised Bayesian bootstrapping, Bayes Factor analysis, and Bayesian parameter estimation via Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations (in addition to classical NHST).

“Few researchers are aware that their own heroes rejected what they practice routinely. Awareness of the origins of the ritual and of its rejection could cause a virulent cognitive dissonance, in addition to dissonance with editors, reviewers, and dear colleagues. Suppression of conflicts and contradicting information is in the very nature of this social ritual.”
(Gerd Gigerenzer, 2004, p. 592; Director Emeritus of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, inter alia)

Statistical Research Methods workshop at the University of Plymouth in 2014:
The pitfalls of hypothesis testing


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This is an excerpt form my PhD dissertation which can be accessed under the following URL: http://phd-thesis.ga

Flowchart of preregistration procedure in scientific research.

Preregistration is the practice of publishing the methodology of experiments before they begin. This strategy reduces problems stemming from publication bias and selective reporting of results. See for example:

https://aspredicted.org/
https://cos.io/prereg/
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/publications/replication

A exemplary list of currently preregistered studies can be found on Zotero: https://www.zotero.org/groups/479248/osf/items/collectionKey/KEJP68G9

Questionable research practices that compromise the hypothetico-deductive model which underpins scientific research (graphic adapted (...)

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* Copyright 2012,2013 Lu Wang
* https://github.com/coolwanglu/pdf2htmlEX/blob/master/share/LICENSE
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* Base CSS for pdf2htmlEX
* Copyright 2012,2013 Lu Wang
* https://github.com/coolwanglu/pdf2htmlEX/blob/master/share/LICENSE
*/#sidebar{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;width:250px;padding:0;margin:0;overflow:auto}#page-container{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;margin:0;padding:0;border:0}@media screen{#sidebar.opened+#page-container{left:250px}#page-container{bottom:0;right:0;overflow:auto}.loading-indicator{display:none}.loading-indicator.active{display:block;position:absolute;width:64px;height:64px;top:50%;left:50%;margin-top:-32px;margin-left:-32px}.loading-indicator img{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0}}@media print{@page{margin:0}html{margin:0}body{margin:0;-webkit-print-color-adjust:exact}#sidebar{display:none}#page-container{width:auto;height:auto;overflow:visible;background-color:transparent}.d{display:none}}.pf{position:relative;background-color:white;overflow:hidden;margin:0;border:0}.pc{position:absolute;border:0;padding:0;margin:0;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;overflow:hidden;display:block;transform-origin:0 (...)

JASP is a cross-platform software program primarily developed for Bayesian analyses. It currently utilizes more than 50 R packages and provides an intuitive & user-friendly GUI (graphical user interface). However, unfortunately the generated R code . This would be an important feature for future versions of JASP (in line with the open-science philosophy).

https://github.com/jasp-stats/jasp-desktop

Gronau, Q. F., Ly, A., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2017). Informed Bayesian t-tests. Manuscripts submitted for publication ().

Jamil, T., Ly, A., Morey, R. D., Love, J., Marsman, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2017). . Behavior Research Methods, 49, 638-652.

Ly, A., Raj, A., Marsman, M., Etz, A., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2017). Bayesian reanalyses from summary (...)

Visit: http://dual-aspect-monism.cf

Abstract

It is argued that the Möbius band provides a readily communicable conceptual visual metaphor for dual-aspect Monism à la Pauli-Jung. The Pauli-Jung conjecture is particularly relevant in the context of modern neuroscience as most contemporary neuroscientists stipulate prima facie that the brain produces consciousness. However, this perspective is not conclusively supported by empirical evidence. the monistic dual-aspect perspective provides a parsimonious & elegant solution for the mind-body problem and the hard problem of consciousness (viz., the production problem). The symbolism of the Möbius band is particularly interesting from an embodied and grounded cognition perspective.  Specifically, Lakoff’s “conceptual metaphor theory” provides (...)

Kapālabhātī is a yogic prāṇāyāma technique. From an etymological perspective, the word kapalabhati is a composite lexeme composed of two Sanskrit words: "kapal" meaning 'skull', and "bhati" meaning 'shining, illuminating'. (...)

The author meditating in Paścimottānāsana

The great ancient knowledge system of India known as Vedānta has several schools of thought and forms the rational philosophical system which is the foundation of Hinduism. It is based on various Upanishads178, the Brahma Sūtras, and the Bhagavad Gītā. It provides a profound science179 of the mind and consciousness which is relevant for contemporary westerns sciences like psychology, neuroscience, biology, and physics (Frawley, 2001; Silberstein, 2017; Vaidya & Bilimoria, 2015). Most Vedāntic schools of thought are dualistic in nature with the exception of Advaita Vedānta which is furthermore incompatible with superficial and naïve materialistic ideologies (e.g., naïve realism). Its introspective methods permit deep insights (...)

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