The p-value ritual

The p-value and its implicit symbolism

The Aristotelian conditional syllogistic logic behind the Fisherian p-value is widely misunderstood which leads to fallacious logical inferences. The p-value resembles a Kantian paralogism, i.e., it appears objective and logically valid even though it is not. The p-value is an irrational social ritual (cf. Gigerenzer, 2004). Social conformity, obedience to authority, groupthink, and other aspects of Social Identity Theory (SIT) play an important role in this context.

Given the well-documented paralogisms associated with classical Fisherian null hypothesis significance testing (cf. Cohen, 1994) I advocate alternative inferential research methods. For the statistical analyses of the experimental data I collected during my PhD I utilised Bayesian bootstrapping, Bayes Factor analysis, and Bayesian parameter estimation via Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations (in addition to classical NHST).

“Few researchers are aware that their own heroes rejected what they practice routinely. Awareness of the origins of the ritual and of its rejection could cause a virulent cognitive dissonance, in addition to dissonance with editors, reviewers, and dear colleagues. Suppression of conflicts and contradicting information is in the very nature of this social ritual.”
(Gerd Gigerenzer, 2004, p. 592; Director Emeritus of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, inter alia)

Statistical Research Methods workshop at the University of Plymouth in 2014:
The pitfalls of hypothesis testing

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“The words of language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be “voluntarily” reproduced and combined. The above mentioned elements are, in my case, of visual and some of muscular type.”

(Einstein quoted in Hadamard, 1996, The mathematician's mind: The psychology of invention in the mathematical field. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (original work published 1945), as cited in Diezmann, C. M., & Watters, J. J. (2000). Identifying and supporting spatial intelligence in young children. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. 1(3), 299-313).

How do people think about things they cannot see, (...)

The primary objective of prep is to provide an estimate of replicability (based on the empirical data) which does not involve Bayesian assumptions with regards to a priori distributions of θ. The submission guidelines of the APA flagship journal 'Psychological Science' for some time explicitly encouraged authors to “use prep rather than p-values” in the results section of their articles. This factoid is documented in the internet archive, a digital library which provides a mnemonic online system containing the history of the web, a “digital time machine” (Rackley, 2009; Rogers, 2017). However, this official statistical recommendation by Psychological Science has now been retracted (but the internet never forgets…).

The URL of the relevant internet archive entry is as follows:

By default, (...)

µTorrent - a BitTorrent client for Windows

BitTorrent is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet. BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files, such as digital video files containing TV shows or video clips or digital audio files containing songs. Peer-to-peer networks have been estimated to collectively account for approximately 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on location) as of February 2009.

To send or receive files, a person uses a BitTorrent client on their Internet-connected computer. A BitTorrent client is a computer program that implements the BitTorrent protocol. Popular clients include μTorrent, Xunlei, Transmission, qBittorrent, Vuze, Deluge, (...)

Kapālabhātī is a yogic prāṇāyāma technique. From an etymological perspective, the word kapalabhati is a composite lexeme composed of two Sanskrit words: "kapal" meaning 'skull', and "bhati" meaning 'shining, illuminating'. (...)


Code for generating an interactive Möbius band in R (using OpenGL)
library(rgl) # (Murdoch, 2001)
library(plot3D) # (Soetaert, 2014)
# Define parameters
R <- 3
u <- seq(0, 2 * pi, length.out = 100)
v <- seq(-1, 1, length.out = 100)
m <- mesh(u, v)
u <- m$x
v <- m$y
# Möbius strip parametric equations
x <- (R + v/2 * cos(u /2)) * cos(u)
y <- (R + v/2 * cos(u /2)) * sin(u)
# Visualise in 3-dimensional Euclidean space
bg3d(color = "white")
surface3d(x, y, z, color= "red")


WordPress Post & Page Dropdown Menu

function beliefmedia_wp_post_dropdown($atts) {

$atts = shortcode_atts(array(
'status' => 'publish',
'type' => 'page',
'parent' => false,
'exclude' => false,
'author' => false,
'category' => false,
'tags' => false,
'order' => 'DESC', /* ASC/DESC */
'orderby' => 'date',
'format' => false, /* jS F Y, g:iA */
'date' => false,
'number' => false,
'p' => false,
'style' => 'height: 35px;',

/* Form search text */
'text' => 'Select Page',
'length' => false,

/* Style */
'cache' => 3600 * 8,

), $atts);

$transient = 'bmdd_' . md5(serialize($atts));

Below you can find a custom-made "meta-search-tool" I programmed (coded in ActionScript2) which facilitates to effectively search the web for psychology and neuroscience related information.
You can freely download the program as a zipped executable:

Citation File Format (*.cff)
cff-version: 1.0.3
message: If you use this software, please cite it as below.
- family-names: Germann
given-names: Christopher, Benjamin
title: Psychology Meta Search Tool
version: 1.0.2
date-released: 2012-07-16 (...)

Specific eye exercises (e.g., Trataka) can counteract the effects of prolonged screen-gazing (viz., ocular fixation). This is particularly useful for programmers but also for those who use their mobile phones on a regular basis. In fact, optometrists have observed that there is a significant increase in shortsightedness (myopia) due to prolonged screen exposure.
This is know as the "near work" hypothesis (a correlative hypothesis, i.e., correlation is unequal to causation). The "visual stimuli" hypothesis is concptualy related and asserts that...
Website under construction...
fLux and melatonin

Pan, CW; Ramamurthy, D; Saw, SM (January 2012). "Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia". Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. (...)

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