Specific eye exercises (e.g., Trataka) can counteract the effects of prolonged screen-gazing (viz., ocular fixation). This is particularly useful for programmers but also for those who use their mobile phones on a regular basis. In fact, optometrists have observed that there is a significant increase in shortsightedness (myopia) due to prolonged screen exposure.
This is know as the “near work” hypothesis (a correlative hypothesis, i.e., correlation is unequal to causation). The “visual stimuli” hypothesis is concptualy related and asserts that…
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fLux and melatonin
Pan, CW; Ramamurthy, D; Saw, SM (January 2012). “Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia”. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 32 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00884.x.